Amy Guy

Raw Blog

Sunday, March 03, 2013

Notes about the Semantic Web and social machines

J. Hendler, T. Berners-Lee, From the Semantic Web to social machines: A research challenge for AI on the World Wide Web, Artificial Intelligence (2009), doi:10.1016/j.artint.2009.11.010

Powerful human interactions enabled by futuristic high-speed infrastructure.
Empower Web of people via coupling of AI, social computing and new technologies.  "humanity in the loop".
Social machine: "...processes in which people do the creative work and the machine does the administration." (Weaving the Web, p172).
Struggling with social mechanisms to control predatory behaviour and threats to privacy.
-> Tech must be developed that allows user communities to construct / share / adapt social machines, so successful models evolve through trial, use and refinement.
Claims a new generation of Web Technologies needed to overcome barriers to this; cross-disciplinary approach needed.
  • creating tools
  • creating principles and guidelines
  • extending Web infrastructure re: information sharing and address privacy and user expectations of data use.

"...a revolutionarily more powerful platform for the individual, enabled by realizing that the individual is also a member of a community" (/ies)
"architecture of the future Web must be designed to allow the virtually unlimited interaction of the Web of people" (vs. documents now)

Giant Global Graph -
SW deployment:
  • [3] T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, O. Lassila, The semantic web, Scientific American (May 2001) 28–37.
  • [10] J. Hendler, Web 3.0 emerging, IEEE Computer 42 (1) (January 2009).
  • [11] I. Jacobs, N. Walsh (Eds.), Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One, 2004, W3C Recommendation 15 December 2004,

"disruptive potential" of SWt, "important paradigm shift"
"little work in understanding the impact of their new capability"
"the smaller we can make the individual steps of this transformation, the easier it will be to find humans who can be incentivized to perform those steps."
"need to develop mechanisms to enable [connections between people]"

Lack structure for formally computing qualities like:
  • trustworthiness
  • reliability
  • expectations about use of information
  • privacy
  • copyright
  • (etc)

"requires data structures... to treat social expectations and legal rules as first-class objects" ("declarative rule-based infrastructure that is appropriate for the Web").

"open and distributed nature of the Web requires that rule sets be linked together."Cross-context use, sometimes unanticipated.Inconsistency sure to arise.  No logics that control contradiction have been shown to scale well.
New approaches to problem of specifying contexts (need).
SMs must be able to apply different policies based on context.
Work in ontologies must extend to allow user communities to identify bias and share different interpretations.

Current security models / mechanisms insufficient.
[1] - formal models for privacy: L. Backstrom, C. Dwork, J. Kleinberg, Wherefore art thou r3579x?: Anonymized social networks, hidden patterns, and structural steganography, in: Proceedings of the 16th International World Wide Web Conference, Banff, 2007, pp. 181–190.
Provenance important in determining trustworthiness.
[20] information accountability, legal and public policy: D. Weitzner, H. Abelson, T. Berners-Lee, J. Feigenbaum, J. Hendler, G. Sussman, Information accountability, Communications of the ACM (June 2008).
policy-rule-based languages.Reasoners that can interpret policy and determine which uses of data are policy-compliant.-> How to tackle scaling?
[4] Lit review: T. Berners-Lee, W. Hall, J. Hendler, K. O’Hara, N. Shadbolt, D. Weitzner, A framework for web science, Foundations and Trends in Web Science 1 (1) (2006).